Department of MathematicsNo Descriptionhttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/192024-05-28T07:22:51Z2024-05-28T07:22:51Z981Applicability of time fractional derivative models for simulating the dynamics and mitigation scenarios of COVID-19Zhang, YongYu, XiangnanSun, HongGuangTick, Geoffrey R.Wei, WeiJin, Binhttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116722023-09-28T19:38:49Z2020-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: Applicability of time fractional derivative models for simulating the dynamics and mitigation scenarios of COVID-19
dc.contributor.author: Zhang, Yong; Yu, Xiangnan; Sun, HongGuang; Tick, Geoffrey R.; Wei, Wei; Jin, Bin
dc.description.abstract: Fractional calculus provides a promising tool for modeling fractional dynamics in computational biology, and this study tests the applicability of fractional-derivative equations (FDEs) for modeling the dynamics and mitigation scenarios of the novel coronavirus for the first time. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) pandemic radically impacts our lives, while the evolution dynamics of COVID-19 remain obscure. A time-dependent Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Recovered (SEIR) model was proposed and applied to fit and then predict the time series of COVID-19 evolution observed over the last three months (up to 3/22/2020) in China. The model results revealed that 1) the transmission, infection and recovery dynamics follow the integral-order SEIR model with significant spatiotemporal variations in the recovery rate, likely due to the continuous improvement of screening techniques and public hospital systems, as well as full city lockdowns in China, and 2) the evolution of number of deaths follows the time FDE, likely due to the time memory in the death toll. The validated SEIR model was then applied to predict COVID-19 evolution in the United States, Italy, Japan, and South Korea. In addition, a time FDE model based on the random walk particle tracking scheme, analogous to a mixing-limited bimolecular reaction model, was developed to evaluate non-pharmaceutical strategies to mitigate COVID-19 spread. Preliminary tests using the FDE model showed that self-quarantine may not be as efficient as strict social distancing in slowing COVID-19 spread. Therefore, caution is needed when applying FDEs to model the coronavirus outbreak, since specific COVID-19 kinetics may not exhibit nonlocal behavior. Particularly, the spread of COVID-19 may be affected by the rapid improvement of health care systems which may remove the memory impact in COVID-19 dynamics (resulting in a short-tailed recovery curve), while the death toll and mitigation of COVID-19 can be captured by the time FDEs due to the nonlocal, memory impact in fatality and human activities. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2020-01-01T00:00:00ZFuzzy Upper Bounds in GroupoidsAhn, Sun ShinKim, Young HeeNeggers, J.https://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116732023-09-28T19:38:49Z2014-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: Fuzzy Upper Bounds in Groupoids
dc.contributor.author: Ahn, Sun Shin; Kim, Young Hee; Neggers, J.
dc.description.abstract: The notion of a fuzzy upper bound over a groupoid is introduced and some properties of it are investigated. We also define the notions of an either-or subset of a groupoid and a strong either-or subset of a groupoid and study some of their related properties. In particular, we consider fuzzy upper bounds in Bin(X), where Bin(X) is the collection of all groupoids. Finally, we define a fuzzy-d-subset of a groupoid and investigate some of its properties..
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZThe Interaction between Fuzzy Subsets and GroupoidsShin, Seung JoonKim, Hee SikNeggers, J.https://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116752023-09-28T19:38:49Z2014-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: The Interaction between Fuzzy Subsets and Groupoids
dc.contributor.author: Shin, Seung Joon; Kim, Hee Sik; Neggers, J.
dc.description.abstract: We discuss properties of a class of real-valued functions on a set X-2 constructed as finite (real) linear combinations of functions denoted as [(X, *); mu], where (X, *) is a groupoid (binary system) and mu is a fuzzy subset of X and where [(X., *); mu] (x, y) := mu (x * y) - min {mu(x), mu(y)}. Many properties, for example, mu being a fuzzy subgroupoid of (X, *), can be restated as some properties of [(X, *); mu]. Thus, the context provided opens up ways to consider well-known concepts in a new light, with new ways to prove known results as well as to provide new questions and new results. Among these are identifications of many subsemigroups and left ideals of (Bin (X); square) for example.
2014-01-01T00:00:00Z(n-1)-Step Derivations on n-Groupoids: The Case n=3Alshehri, N. O.Kim, Hee SikNeggers, J.https://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116742023-09-28T19:38:49Z2014-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: (n-1)-Step Derivations on n-Groupoids: The Case n=3
dc.contributor.author: Alshehri, N. O.; Kim, Hee Sik; Neggers, J.
dc.description.abstract: We define a ranked trigroupoid as a natural followup on the idea of a ranked bigroupoid. We consider the idea of a derivation on such a trigroupoid as representing a two-step process on a pair of ranked bigroupoids where the mapping d is a self-derivation at each step. Following up on this idea we obtain several results and conclusions of interest. We also discuss the notion of a couplet (D, d) on X, consisting of a two-step derivation d and its square D = d circle d, for example, whose defining property leads to further observations on the underlying ranked trigroupoids also.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZOn Abelian and Related Fuzzy Subsets of GroupoidsShin, Seung JoonKim, Hee SikNeggers, J.https://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116702023-09-28T19:38:48Z2013-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: On Abelian and Related Fuzzy Subsets of Groupoids
dc.contributor.author: Shin, Seung Joon; Kim, Hee Sik; Neggers, J.
dc.description.abstract: We introduce the notion of abelian fuzzy subsets on a groupoid, and we observe a variety of consequences which follow. New notions include, among others, diagonal symmetric relations, several types of quasi orders, convex sets, and fuzzy centers, some of whose properties are also investigated.
2013-01-01T00:00:00ZThe influence of surfactant on the propagation of a semi-infinite bubble through a liquid-filled compliant channelHalpern, DavidGaver, Donald P., IIIhttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116712023-09-28T19:38:49Z2012-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: The influence of surfactant on the propagation of a semi-infinite bubble through a liquid-filled compliant channel
dc.contributor.author: Halpern, David; Gaver, Donald P., III
dc.description.abstract: We investigate the influence of a soluble surfactant on the steady-state motion of a finger of air through a compliant channel. This study provides a basic model from which to understand the fluid-structure interactions and physicochemical hydrodynamics of pulmonary airway reopening. Airway closure occurs in lung diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome as a result of fluid accumulation and surfactant insufficiency. This results in 'compliant collapse' with the airway walls buckled and held in apposition by a liquid occlusion that blocks the passage of air. Airway reopening is essential to the recovery of adequate ventilation, but has been associated with ventilator-induced lung injury because of the exposure of airway epithelial cells to large interfacial flow-induced pressure gradients. Surfactant replacement is helpful in modulating this deleterious mechanical stimulus, but is limited in its effectiveness owing to slow surfactant adsorption. We investigate the effect of surfactant on micro-scale models of reopening by computationally modelling the steady two-dimensional motion of a semi-infinite bubble propagating through a liquid-filled compliant channel doped with soluble surfactant. Many dimensionless parameters affect reopening, but we primarily investigate how the reopening pressure p(b) depends upon the capillary number Ca (the ratio of viscous to surface tension forces), the adsorption depth parameter lambda (a bulk concentration parameter) and the bulk Peclet number Pe(b) (the ratio of bulk convection to diffusion). These studies demonstrate a dependence of p(b) on lambda, and suggest that a critical bulk concentration must be exceeded to operate as a low-surface-tension system. Normal and tangential stress gradients remain largely unaffected by physicochemical interactions - for this reason, further biological studies are suggested that will clarify the role of wall flexibility and surfactant on the protection of the lung from atelectrauma.
2012-01-01T00:00:00ZImpact of an equality constraint on the class-specific residual variances in regression mixtures: A Monte Carlo simulation studyKim, MinjungLamont, Andrea E.Jaki, ThomasFeaster, DanielHowe, GeorgeVan Horn, M. Leehttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116682023-09-28T19:38:48Z2016-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: Impact of an equality constraint on the class-specific residual variances in regression mixtures: A Monte Carlo simulation study
dc.contributor.author: Kim, Minjung; Lamont, Andrea E.; Jaki, Thomas; Feaster, Daniel; Howe, George; Van Horn, M. Lee
dc.description.abstract: Regression mixture models are a novel approach to modeling the heterogeneous effects of predictors on an outcome. In the model-building process, often residual variances are disregarded and simplifying assumptions are made without thorough examination of the consequences. In this simulation study, we investigated the impact of an equality constraint on the residual variances across latent classes. We examined the consequences of constraining the residual variances on class enumeration (finding the true number of latent classes) and on the parameter estimates, under a number of different simulation conditions meant to reflect the types of heterogeneity likely to exist in applied analyses. The results showed that bias in class enumeration increased as the difference in residual variances between the classes increased. Also, an inappropriate equality constraint on the residual variances greatly impacted on the estimated class sizes and showed the potential to greatly affect the parameter estimates in each class. These results suggest that it is important to make assumptions about residual variances with care and to carefully report what assumptions are made.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZA unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integrationZhao, ShanWei, G. W.https://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/116692023-09-28T19:38:48Z2014-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration
dc.contributor.author: Zhao, Shan; Wei, G. W.
dc.description.abstract: We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge-Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge-Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZWeighted Norm Inequalities for the Maximal Operator on Variable Lebesgue Spaces Over Spaces of Homogeneous TypeCummings, Jeremyhttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/83802023-08-08T16:26:06Z2020-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: Weighted Norm Inequalities for the Maximal Operator on Variable Lebesgue Spaces Over Spaces of Homogeneous Type
dc.contributor.author: Cummings, Jeremy
dc.description.abstract: Given a space of homogeneous type $(X,\mu,d)$, we prove strong-type weighted norm inequalities for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator over the variable exponent Lebesgue spaces $L^\pp$. We prove that the variable Muckenhoupt condition $\App$ is necessary and sufficient for the strong type inequality if $\pp$ satisfies log-H\"older continuity conditions and $1 < p_- \leq p_+ < \infty$. Our results generalize to spaces of homogeneous type the analogous results in Euclidean space proved in [14].
dc.description: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
2020-01-01T00:00:00ZTopological transformation groups with a fixed end pointGray, William Jessehttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/82582023-08-08T20:13:31Z1965-01-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: Topological transformation groups with a fixed end point
dc.contributor.author: Gray, William Jesse
dc.description: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
1965-01-01T00:00:00Z